China's nuclear safety and radioactive pollution p

2022-08-12
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Ministry of environmental protection: China's nuclear safety and radioactive pollution prevention and control are facing challenges

recently, the Ministry of Environmental Protection released the "12th Five Year Plan for nuclear safety and radioactive pollution prevention and control and 2020 long-term goals" in full on its official website, and publicly solicited opinions from the public. The plan pointed out that the coexistence of various reactor types, technologies and standards of China's nuclear power has brought certain difficulties to safety management, China's nuclear safety and prevention of radioactive pollution are facing challenges, and the security situation is not optimistic

The plan points out that at present, China has formed a relatively complete nuclear industry system, and nuclear energy has played an important role in optimizing the energy structure, ensuring energy security, promoting pollution reduction and coping with climate change; Nuclear technology has been widely used in industry, agriculture, national defense, medical treatment, scientific research and other fields, which has effectively promoted economic and social development. Nuclear safety is the lifeline of the development of nuclear energy and nuclear technology utilization. China has always adhered to the fundamental policy of "safety first and quality first" in the utilization of nuclear energy and technology, implemented the safety concepts of defense in depth, and taken effective measures to ensure nuclear safety. After the Fukushima nuclear accident in March, 2011, China's task of further ensuring nuclear safety and preventing radioactive pollution has become more arduous and urgent, and the relevant work is facing new situations and challenges

the plan points out that China has made positive progress in nuclear safety and prevention and control of radioactive pollution. First, the nuclear safety assurance system is gradually improving. China has basically established a system of nuclear safety regulations and standards covering all kinds of nuclear facilities and activities. A nuclear safety management system dominated by operating units, group companies, industry competent departments and nuclear safety supervision departments, as well as a three-level nuclear accident emergency management system of nuclear power plants composed of national, provincial and operating units, have been initially formed

the construction of nuclear safety culture continues to deepen, the allocation of professional personnel is becoming more and more complete, and the quality assurance system continues to improve. The review and supervision ability of the nuclear safety supervision department has been gradually improved, and the radiation monitoring network of the operating nuclear power plant and the surrounding environment has been basically established. In the emergency rescue of major disasters such as the Wenchuan earthquake, the Chinese government has made decisive decisions and acted efficiently, effectively resolving the nuclear safety risks caused by secondary natural disasters, and the nuclear safety assurance system has played a major role

second, the level of nuclear safety has been continuously improved. China's nuclear power plants are designed, built and operated in accordance with international standards and the concept of defense in depth. The express industry uses 12 billion plastic bags, 14.4 billion packaging boxes and 24.7 billion meters of sealing tape, which has a high level of safety. As of December, 2011, the 15 nuclear power units operating in Chinese Mainland had a good safety performance, and there were no incidents and accidents of level 2 or above in the international nuclear incident classification table, and the emissions of gaseous and liquid effluents were far below the national standard limits. The quality assurance system of 26 nuclear power units under construction operates effectively, and the engineering construction technology level keeps pace with the international level. Major special scientific and technological work for large advanced pressurized water reactors and high temperature gas cooled nuclear power plants was carried out in an orderly manner. The results of the comprehensive safety inspection of nuclear facilities implemented in 2011 show that China's nuclear power units in operation and under construction basically meet the requirements of China's current nuclear safety regulations and the latest standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the safety and quality are guaranteed

the safety rectification activities of the research reactor continue to be carried out, and the existing research reactor is in a safe operation or safe shutdown state. Nuclear fuel production, processing, storage and reprocessing facilities have maintained safe operation, and there have been no nuclear criticality accidents and transportation safety accidents that affect the environment or public health. The nuclear material control system is effective. The whole process control of radioactive sources has been implemented, the special rectification of anti jamming sources of irradiation devices has achieved results, the level of safety management has been gradually improved, and the annual incidence of radiation accidents of radioactive sources has decreased from 6.2 per 10000 in the 1990s to 2.5 per 10000 during the "Eleventh Five Year plan". The design, manufacture, installation and nondestructive testing activities of nuclear safety equipment have been fully incorporated into nuclear safety supervision, and the quality and reliability of equipment have been continuously improved

third, the prevention and control of radioactive pollution has been steadily promoted. In recent years, the state has continuously strengthened the prevention and control of radioactive pollution, and the decommissioning of early nuclear facilities and the treatment of radioactive waste left over by history have been steadily promoted. The decommissioning of several micro reactors and radiochemical laboratories has been completed. A number of medium and low-level waste treatment facilities have been completed. Two medium and low-level waste disposal sites have been put into operation, and one medium and low-level waste disposal site has begun construction. A number of uranium geological exploration, decommissioning of mining and smelting facilities and environmental remediation projects have been completed, the risk of dam collapse of tailings pond has been reduced, pollution has been controlled, and environmental quality has been improved. Waste radioactive sources were recovered in time, and a number of old irradiation devices were decommissioned. The national centralized storage of waste radioactive sources and the temporary storage of radioactive waste in all provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) have been basically completed. The national radiation environment quality is good, and the radiation level is equipped with a special form template preparation software to keep within the natural background fluctuation range; The average radiation dose of employees is far below the national limit

the plan also emphasizes that China faces challenges in nuclear safety and radioactive pollution prevention. First, the security situation is not optimistic. The coexistence of multiple reactor types, technologies and standards in China's nuclear power industry has brought certain difficulties to safety management. The ability of nuclear power plants in operation and under construction to prevent and mitigate serious accidents still needs to be further improved. Some research reactors and nuclear fuel cycle facilities are weak in resisting external events. The decommissioning process of early nuclear facilities needs to be further accelerated, and the radioactive waste left over from history needs to be properly disposed of. Environmental problems still exist in the process of uranium mining and smelting development. The quantity of radioactive sources and radiation devices is large and wide, and the task of safety management is heavy

second, scientific and technological research and development needs to be strengthened. The research and development of nuclear safety science and technology lacks overall planning. Existing resources are scattered, talents are scarce, and R & D capabilities are insufficient. The formulation (Revision) of regulations and standards lacks scientific and technological support, and the overall gap between basic science and applied technology research and the international advanced level is still large, which restricts the further improvement of China's nuclear safety level

third, the emergency system needs to be improved. The nuclear accident emergency management system needs to be further improved, and the responsibilities of the nuclear power group company in nuclear accident emergency work need to be further refined. There is a lack of effective emergency support mechanism within the nuclear power group company and among the nuclear power group companies, and the emergency resource reserve and allocation capacity are insufficient. The technical support capacity of local governments in emergency command, response, monitoring and finally drying with absorbent cotton dipped in water still needs to be improved. The enforceability of the nuclear accident emergency plan still needs to be improved

It also failed to popularize the operation process and use method of impact testing machine to employees.

fourth, the supervision ability needs to be improved. The nuclear safety supervision capability does not match the scale and speed of nuclear energy development. The nuclear safety supervision lacks independent means of analysis and evaluation, verification and calculation, and experimental verification, and the on-site supervision and law enforcement equipment is insufficient. China's radiation environment monitoring system is not perfect, and the monitoring capacity needs to be greatly improved. Public publicity and education on nuclear safety are weak, international cooperation on nuclear safety and information disclosure need to be strengthened, and the public participation mechanism needs to be improved. There is a lack of nuclear safety supervision talents and insufficient investment in capacity-building

the plan emphasizes that the experience and lessons of the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan are very profound, and it is necessary to further improve the understanding of the extreme importance and basic laws of nuclear safety, and improve the cultural literacy and level of nuclear safety; Further improve the requirements of nuclear safety standards and the inherent safety level of facilities; Further improve the accident emergency response mechanism and improve the emergency response ability; Further enhance the management, technical ability and resource support ability of the operating unit; Further improve the independence, authority and effectiveness of the nuclear safety supervision department; Further strengthen the research and development of nuclear safety technology, and rely on scientific and technological innovation to promote the continuous improvement and progress of nuclear safety level; Further strengthen the sharing of nuclear safety experience and capabilities; Further strengthen public publicity and information disclosure

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